Aug 31, 2010

Myths and Truths about MRI Scan

There are lot of myths about MRI Scan. Here is a video about that

Thanks to

Aug 17, 2010

Rule 4,5,
The Fundamental Rules of Tamilnadu Government.

3. Unless in any case it be otherwise distinctly provided by or under the rules, these rules do not apply to
Government servants whose conditions of service are governed by Army or Marine Regulations.

4. Deleted.

5. Deleted.

5-A. The Government may relax the provisions of rules or orders in such manner as may appear to
them to be just and equitable provided that where any such rule or order is applicable to the case of
any person or class of persons, the case shall not be dealt with in any manner less favourable to him
or them than that provided by that rule or order.

Fundamental Rule 5-A applies only to relaxations in individual cases. General exemptions from the
natural operation of rules can be made only by amendment of the rules by competent authority.

Aug 10, 2010

Rule 2
The Fundamental Rules Of Tamilnadu Government

The Fundamental Rules apply, subject to the provisions of Rule 3, to all Government servants paid from the Consolidated Fund of the State and to any other class of Government servants to which Government may by general or special order declare them to be applicable.

The Government may, in relation to service, under their administrative control, other than All-India Services, make rules modifying or replacing any of the Fundamental Rules

Proviso deleted (G.O.Ms.No.90 P&AR (FR.IV) dt. 5.7.2003 - w.e.f. 19.3.2003).

Note 1.—A Government servant who is paid from the Consolidated Fund of the State and who is temporarily transferred to any of the Defence Services shall remain subject to these Fundamental

Note-2.—The Service Rules shall be taken to embody and indicate fully all the provisions governing the services concerned. As laid down in the Service Rules the Fundamental Rules shall
govern a service, only in the matter of leave, leave salary, pension and other such conditions of service, as have not been provided for in the Service Rules. If any provision of the Fundamental Rules
is repugnant to any provisions of the Service Rules, then the provisions of the Service Rules shall prevail and the provisions of the Fundamental Rules shall, to the extent of the repugnancy, be void.


(1) In cases where the Tamil Nadu Government merely record the orders of Government of India regarding Fundamental Rules, it may be assumed theat the instructions issued by the Government of India will apply to Government servants under the rule-making control of Tamil Nadu Government.

(2) The personnel allotted from the former Travancore-Cochin State to the Tamil Nadu State shall be governed by the Fundamental Rules of the Tamil Nadu Government subject to the protection given
by the proviso to Section 115 of the State Reorganisation Act, 1956 (Central Act 37 of 1956) in supersession of the corresponding rules, if any applicable to them.
(G.O.Ms. No.1157, Finance, dated 22nd October 1960.)
(5-A) Consolidated Fund means the Consolidated Fund of the State of Tamil Nadu 
Article 266 (i) of the Constitution of India
Consolidated Funds and public accounts of India and of the States

(1) Subject to the provisions of Article 267 and to the provisions of this Chapter with respect to the assignment of the whole or part of the net proceeds of certain taxes and duties to States, all revenues received by the Government of India, all loans raised by that Government by the issue of treasury bills, loans or ways and means advances and all moneys received by that Government in repayment of loans shall form one consolidated fund to be entitled the Consolidated Fund of India, and all revenues received by the Government of a State, all loans raised by that Government by the issue of treasury bills, loans or ways and means advances and all moneys received by that Government in repayment of loans shall form one consolidated fund to be entitled the Consolidated Fund of the State

(2) All other public moneys received by or on behalf of the Government of India or the Government of a State shall be entitled to the public account of India or the public account of the State, as the case may be

(3) No moneys out of the Consolidated Fund of India or the Consolidated Fund of a State shall be appropriated except in accordance with law and for the purposes and in the manner provided in this Constitution

Aug 7, 2010

Rule 1
The Fundamental Rules Of Tamilnadu Government

These rules may be called the Fundamental Rules. They shall come into force with effect
from the 1st January 1922.


The President of the Republic of India and the State Government may, by general or special
orders, permit deviations from any provisions of a purely procedural nature contained in any rules
made or confirmed under Article 309 of the Constitution of India provided that such deviations shall
not affect the conditions of service, the pay and allowances or the pensions of officers subject to the
rule-making control of the President of the Republic of India.


Article 309  The Constitution Of India 1949
Recruitment and conditions of service of persons serving the Union or a State Subject to the provisions of this Constitution, Acts of the appropriate Legislature may regulate the recruitment, and conditions of service of persons appointed, to public services and posts in connection with the affairs of the Union or of any State: Provided that it shall be competent for the President or such person as he may direct in the case of services and posts in connection with the affairs of the Union, and for the Governor of a State or such person as he may direct in the case of services and posts in connection with the affairs of the State, to make rules regulating the recruitment, and the conditions of service of persons appointed, to such services and posts until provision in that behalf is made by or under an Act of the appropriate Legislature under this article, and any rules so made shall have effect subject to the provisions of any such Act

Aug 3, 2010


The ancient records of India indicate the principles and
practices of nursing. They are so clear, intelligent and scientific, that
many of them might fit into any of the modern textbook.
The nurses were usually young men, and only in special
cases, women were taken for conducting childbirth. The progress of
nursing in India was obstructed by the low state of women, the caste
system, illiteracy and political unrest.
Military nursing was the earliest type of nursing. In 1664 the
East India Company started a hospital for soldiers in a house at Fort
St.George, Madras. The first sisters were sent from St.Thomas
Hospital, London to this military hospital.
In 1797 a Lying - in -Hospital (maternity) for the poor of Madras was built with the helpof subscriptions by Dr.John Underwood.
In 1854 the Government
sanctioned a training school for midwives in Madras.
Florence Nightingale was the first woman to have great
influence over nursing in India and had a close knowledge of Indian
conditions, especially army.
She was interested in the nursing service
for the civilian population, though her first interest was the welfare
of the army in India.

In 1865, Miss Florence Nightingale drew up some detailed
"Suggestions on a system of nursing for hospitals in India".
Graduates were sent out from the Nightingale School of Nurses at
St.Thomas Hospital, England to start similar schools in our country.
St Stephens Hospital at Delhi was the first one to begin
training the Indian girls as nurses in 1867. In 1871, the first School
of Nursing was started in Government General Hospital, Madras
with 6 months Diploma Midwives program with four mid-wife
Four lady Superintendents and four trained nurses from
England were posted to Madras.
Between 1890 and 1900, many schools, under either
missions or government, were started in various parts of India. In
the yearly twentieth century, National Nursing Associations were
In 1897, Dr.B.C.Roy did great work in raising the standards
of nursing and that of male and female nurses.
In 1908, the trained nurses association of India was formed
as it was felt to uphold the dignity and the honour of nursing
In 1918, training schools were started for health visitors and
dais, at Delhi and Karachi. Two English nurses Miss Griffin and
Miss Graham were appointed to give training to and to supervise the
In 1926, Madras State formed the first registration council
to provide basic standards in education and training. The first four
year basic Bachelor Degree program were established in 1946 at the
college of nursing in Delhi and Vellore.
With the assistance from the Rockfeller Foundations, seven
health centers were set up between 1931 - 1939 in the cities of
Delhi, Madras, Bangalore, Lucknow, Trivandrum, Pune and
In 1947, after the independence, the community
development programme and the expansion of hospital service
created a large demand for nurses, auxiliary nurse midwives, health
visitors, midwives, nursing tutors and nursing administrators.
The Indian Nursing Council was passed by our ordinance on
December 31st 1947. The council was constituted in 1949.
In 1956, Miss Adrenwala was appointed as the Nursing
Advisor to Government of India.
The development of Nursing in
India was greatly influenced by the Christian missionaries, World
War, British rule and by the International agencies such as W.H.O.
UNICEF, Red Cross, UNSAID etc.

The first master’s degree course, a two-year postgraduate
program was begun in 1960 at the College of Nursing, Delhi.
In 1963, the School of Nursing in Trivandrum, instituted the
first two years post certificate Bachelor Degree program.
The associations such as International Council of Nurses, the
nurses auxiliary of the CMA of India, T.N.A.I. Indian Nursing
council and State level Registration Council are closely connected
with promotion and the upliftment of the nursing profession.